+92 21 38799845 info@noorcancerhospital.com

RESEARCH

WHAT IS CANCER

CANCER

Cancer is the abnormal/unusual out of control growth of cells in a part of the body. Normal cells divide and grow in an orderly fashion, but cancer cells do not. They continue to grow and crowd out normal cells.

There are many kinds of cancer; they all have in common, this out of control growth of cells.

Cancer occurs as a result of mutations, or abnormal changes, in the genes responsible for regulating the growth of cells and keeping them healthy. The genes are in each cell’s nucleus, which acts as the “control room” of each cell.

HOW DOES CANCER OCCOURS

Normally, the cells in our bodies replace themselves through an orderly process. In this process, healthy new cells take over as old ones die out.
But over time, mutations can “turn on” certain genes and “turn off” others in a cell. That changed cell gains the ability to keep dividing without control or order, producing more cells just like it and forming a Tumor.
A Tumor can be benign (not dangerous to health) or malignant (has the potential to be dangerous).

Benign tumors: are not considered cancerous: their cells are close to normal in appearance, they grow slowly, and they do not invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body.

Malignant tumors: are cancerous. Left unchecked, malignant cells eventually can spread beyond the original tumor to other parts of the body.

TYPES OF CANCER

Bone Cancer:

Primary bone cancers (those that originate in the bone) represent less than 0.2 percent of all cancers. The most common types occur most frequently in children and adolescents and are especially rare in middle-aged adults. The most common form of bone sarcoma in adults is chondro-sarcoma. It usually occurs in adults between the sixth and eighth decades of life. This form of cancer is treated by surgery alone, as radiation therapy and chemotherapy are not effective for this entity.

Brain Cancer:

Brain cancer, or a primary brain tumor, is a cancer that begins in the tissues of the brain. It rarely spreads to other parts of the body, although
if not treated, it will grow and the symptoms will worsen over time. Brain cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths, but research has produced new, more effective treatment methods. Surgery, radiation and chemotherapy are the most commonly used treatments.

Endocrine Cancer:

Endocrine cancers are a mixed group of diseases in which cancer cells are found in tissues of the endocrine system, which includes the thyroid, adrenal, pancreas, parathyroid and pituitary glands Endocrine glands normally secrete hormones; tumors of these glands may also secret hormones, often in abnormal amounts. However, the fact that a tumor secretes a hormone does not make it benign (or cancerous). This feature is determined solely based on the capacity of the tumor to spread out of its normal position.

Gastrointestinal Cancer:

Gastrointestinal cancer (cancer of the digestive system) includes cancers of the esophagus, gallbladder, liver, pancreas, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon) and rectum. The risk of getting cancer increases with age, and inherited gene mutations or a family history of cancer may increase the risk.

Gynecologic Cancer:

Gynecologic cancer is cancer originating in the female reproductive organs. It includes cancer of the cervix, fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, vagina and vulva. The risk of getting cancer increases with age, and inherited gene mutations or a family history of cancer may increase the risk.

Head & Neck Cancer:

Most head and neck cancers begin in the mucosal surfaces in the mouth, nose and throat. Included are cancers of the oral cavity, salivary glands, Para-nasal sinuses and nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, and the lymph nodes in the upper part of the neck. Head and neck cancers are highly treatable and the cure rate is good if they are detected early.

Lung Cancer:

Lung cancer is cancer that begins in the lungs. It is the leading cause of cancer deaths in both men and women, although the survival rate has improved slightly in recent years. Cigarette smoking is the most common risk factor for lung cancer, with almost 90 percent of all lung cancers attributable to smoking or secondhand exposure to cigarette smoke.

Lymphoma:

Lymphoma refers to a group of cancers in a person’s lymph nodes. Lymph nodes – small bean-shaped organs found in clusters throughout the body, including in the underarms, groin, neck, chest and abdomen, and in the stomach, intestines and skin – play an important part in your body’s defense against infection. They produce lymph, which travels throughout your body in the lymph system, and filters impurities from the body.

Multiple Myeloma:

Plasma cells develop from B lymphocytes (B cells), a type of white blood cell that is made in the bone marrow. Normally, when bacteria or viruses enter the body, some of the B cells will change into plasma cells. The plasma cells make a different antibody to fight each type of bacteria or virus that enters the body, to stop infection and disease. Plasma cell cancers or neoplasm’s are diseases in which there are too many plasma cells, or Myeloma cells, in the bone marrow, making them unable to do their usual work. When this happens there is less room for healthy red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. This condition may cause anemia or easy bleeding, or make it easier to get an infection. The abnormal plasma cells often form tumors in bones or soft tissues of the body. The plasma cells also make an antibody protein, called M protein for monoclonal protein that is not needed by the body and does not help fight infection. These antibody proteins build up in the bone marrow and can cause the blood to thicken or can damage the kidneys.

Prostate Cancer:

The prostate, part of the male reproductive system, is a gland located under the bladder and in front of the rectum. Prostate cancer usually begins in the gland cells and grows slowly; so many men have prostate cancer but are unaware of it. Sometimes, however, prostate cancer will grow and spread quickly. Prostate cancer is highly curable when detected and treated early. Unfortunately, many men with prostate cancer become confused regarding the complex array of options that are available for prevention and treatment.

Skin Cancer :

Skin cancer is a disease in which cancer cells grow in the tissues of the skin. There are two major groups: non-melanoma and melanoma. Non-melanoma skin cancers are by far the most common types of cancer, with morethan 1 million new cases diagnosed annually, and most are highly curable. Melanoma is much less common, but more serious. Melanoma is highly curable in its early stages, but may spread to other parts of the body.

Soft Tissue Sarcoma:

Soft tissue sarcomas are cancerous tumors that form in the soft tissues that surround, connect or support the structures and organs of the body. Examples include muscles, tendons, fat, blood vessels, nerves and synovial (joint) tissues. Soft tissue sarcoma is a rare type of cancer, but there are more than 50 kinds. Soft tissue sarcoma isone of the rarest types of cancer Soft tissue sarcoma is slightly more commonin males.

BREAST CANCER

What is Breast Cancer?

Breast Cancer is a Malignant (Cancer) tumor that starts from the cells of the breast. It is mostly found in women but sometimes men (about 1%) are also effected by it. Here we will discuss only about women’s breast cancer.

Breast cancer is always caused by a genetic abnormality or a mistake in the genatic material, Family history has long been known to be a risk factor for breast cancer. The risk is highest if the effected relative developed breast cancer at a young age or if she is a close relative such as a mother, sister, daughter, or aunt.

Risk Factors of Breast Cancer:

Following can be the risk factors for Breast Cancer:

* Above 35-40 years of age.

* Start menstruating at an early age.

* Late menopause or passing through this phase.

* Hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms.

* Relatives such as mother, sister, or aunts have experienced Breast Cancer

* Diagnosed and cured form Breast Cancer.

Breast Cancer Types:

There are many types of breast cancer, though some of them are very rare. Sometimes a breast tumor can be a mixture of these types.

Ductal Carcinoma in situ: or DCIS
This is the most common type of non-invasive breast cancer. This type shows that Cancer is only in the ducts. It has not spread into the tissue of the breast. Nearly all women with cancer at this stage can be cured. It can be easily detected by the Mammograms.

Invasive (infiltrating) ductal carcinoma: or IDC

This is the most common breast cancer. It starts in a milk passage or duct, breaks through the wall of the duct, and invades the tissue of the breast. From there it may be able to spread to other parts of the body. 8 out of 10 females are effected by this type.

Inflammatory Breast Cancer: or IBC

It is a rare cancer, accounting for approximately 1% – 3% of all breast cancers. Inflammatory breast cancer causes the breast to appear swollen and inflamed. The inflammation occurs because the cancer cells block the lymphatic vessels in the skin of the breast. This causes a blockage in lymph flow leading to the reddened, inflamed appearance to the breast.In its early stages, inflammatory breast cancer is often mistaken for infection. Because there is no defined lump, it may not show up on a mammogram, which may make it even harder to catch it early. It usually has a higher chance of spreading and a worse outlook than invasive ductal or lobular cancer.

Book an appointment now

If you are interested, send us an inquiry and we will get back to you as soon as we can!

Book Appointment Now
Appointment
Thank You. We will contact you as soon as possible.
SUBSCRIBE TO NEWSLETTER
Turpis dis amet adipiscing hac montes odio ac velit? Porta, non rhoncus vut, vel, et adipiscing magna pulvinar adipiscing est adipiscing urna. Dignissim rhoncus scelerisque pulvinar?
Thank You. We will contact you as soon as possible.
Appointment
custom-field-slSi}
Thank You. We will contact you as soon as possible.